The Mass Mobilization in Autocracies Database (MMAD) contains sub-national data on mass mobilization events in autocracies worldwide. It includes both instances of anti- and pro-regime protest at the level of cities with daily resolution. The data is coded based on news reports obtained from AP, the AFP and BBC Monitoring. The main database contains information at the level of reports, which means that every mention of a political protest in a news report constitutes a new entry in the database. For most types of analysis, these reports should be aggregated to individual events, such that different reports about the same event are merged into a single observation.
We distribute the data both at the original level of reports, as well as a pre-aggregated version at the level of events. Users are free to choose alternative types of aggregation (if required). We provide examples in R to illustrate how this (and other tasks) can be performed.
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- 1.o (2003-2012): Data available
- 2.0 (adds coverage for 2013-2015): Data available
- 3.0 (adds coverage for 2016-2018): Data available.
- 4.0 (adds coverage since 2019): Coding in progress