The Mass Mobilization in Autocracies Database (MMAD) contains sub-national data on mass mobilization events in autocracies worldwide. It includes both instances of anti- and pro-regime protest at the level of cities with daily resolution. The data is coded based on news reports obtained from AP, the AFP and BBC Monitoring. The main database contains information at the level of reports, which means that every mention of a political protest in a news report constitutes a new entry in the database. For most types of analysis, these reports should be aggregated to individual events, such that different reports about the same event are merged into a single observation.
We distribute the data both at the original level of reports, as well as a pre-aggregated version at the level of events. Users are free to choose alternative types of aggregation (if required). We provide examples in R to illustrate how this (and other tasks) can be performed.
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- 1.o (2003-2012): Data available
- 2.0 (adds coverage for 2013-2015): Data available
- 3.0 (adds coverage for 2016-2018): Data available
- 4.0 (adds coverage for 2019, fills many gaps in coverage): Data available
NEW DATA: The MMAD Repressive Actors Dataset
The MMAD Repressive Actors Dataset (MMAD-RA) contains temporally and geographically fine-grained data on the actors present at protest events in over 60 autocratic countries from 2003-2012, including actor type categorization, details on repressive action, and the number of injuries and fatalities. The data expands on the Mass Mobilization in Autocracies Database (MMAD) and includes information on the repressive actors for every anti-regime protest event report in the MMAD.
You can download the data here.