Main reference

For an introduction to the MMAD and the distinction between report-level and event-level data, please refer to

Weidmann, Nils B. and Espen Geelmuyden Rød. The Internet and Political Protest in Autocracies. Chapter 4. Oxford University Press, 2019.

A draft of this chapter is available for download:  Weidmann and Rød Chapter 4 (2179 downloads ) . The book can be ordered from Oxford University Press or Amazon

When using the MMAD for your own work, please cite this chapter as well as the codebook for the respective version (see below). 


Detailed information about the variables contained in the MMAD and the numeric codes is available in the codebook.

Codebook for the current version:
MMAD Codebook for Version 4.0 (1546 downloads )

Codebooks for previous versions:
MMAD Codebook for Version 3.0 (1961 downloads )
MMAD Codebook for Version 2.0 (1785 downloads )
MMAD Codebook for Version 1.0 (1493 downloads )

Additional Information

We pre-filter news reports using machine learning techniques. This procedure is described in 

Croicu, Mihai and Nils B. Weidmann. 2015. “Improving the Selection of News Reports for Event Coding Using Ensemble Classification. Research & Politics 2(4).